Animal Models of the Withdrawal/Negative Affect Stage of the Addiction Cycle

Intracranial Self-Stimulation

Withdrawal from the chronic administration of virtually all major drugs of abuse elevates ICSS thresholds (i.e., decreases reward; Figure 3.9).

Notice that we use the word “elevate” to describe the increase in reward threshold. This has become a convention in the field. Conversely, the word “lower” is used to describe a decrease in threshold.

TABLE 3.3

Animal Models of the Withdrawal/Negative Affect Stage of the Addiction Cycle

  • Intracranial self-stimulation
  • Conditioned place aversion
  • Disrupted operant schedules
  • Drug discrination
  • Measures of anxiety-like responses
  • Drug self-administration with extended access
  • Drug self-administration in dependent animals
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