The therapeutic ratio is an index of the safety of a drug. The way to calculate the therapeutic ratio is to divide the lethal dose (LD50) by the effective dose (ED50) (Figure 2.10). The LD50 is the dose that produces death in 50% of the population. The ED50 is the dose that produces a desired therapeutic effect in 50% of the population. High therapeutic ratios indicate a substantial spread between the lethal dose and the dose required to produce the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, higher therapeutic ratios usually reflect greater drug safety. For example, the LD50 for morphine is 80 mg in a nontolerant person. The ED50 for morphine to produce analgesia is 10 mg (intramuscularly). Therefore, the therapeutic ratio for morphine is 8, indicating the relative safety of using morphine to produce pain relief. By contrast, the therapeutic ratio for alcohol to produce anesthetic effects is 1. Alcohol's LD50 is a blood level of approximately 0.4% in a nontolerant person. Alcohol's ED50 to produce anesthesia is also 0.4%. Therefore, using alcohol to produce anesthesia for, say, tooth extraction in the 1800s would also have a good chance of killing the patient.